On Film Editing. An Introduction to the Art of Film Construction. EDWARD DMYTRYK. . FOCAL PRESS. An Imprint of Elsevier. Boston London. YAN. On Film Editing by Edward arersnaperstif.cf - Download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. EDWARD DMYTRYK'S RULES OF EDITING. (as summarized by Peter Thompson). 1. Film should be cut primarily for the picture. (With the exception of certain.
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Filmography of Edward Dmytryk: p. On film editing: an introduction to the art of film construction. by: Dmytryk, Edward. Publication. Dmytryk, Edward. On Film Editing: An Introduction to the Art of Film Construction, Boston: Focal Press,. * "Rule 1. Never make a cut without a positive. Editorial Reviews. arersnaperstif.cf Review. "Editing is the creative force of filmic reality." So Dmytryk, director of the American classic "The Caine Mutiny" begins this.
However, it is possible to jar the viewer from the context of the story with even the most well-intentioned cut. If your shot contains action that exits the frame, do not linger on it even for a couple frames.
If you do this and fail to overlap to the next action, the viewer has no new information to feed upon and therefore lapses out of the comfort of the story. Because of only a few frames, your viewer is now examining your set design or lighting.
This is exactly what should be avoided. Dmytryk suggests that if frames must be added between shots, do so at the beginning of a fresh, new shot so that the viewer accepts the lingering frames as part of exposition for a new angle or shot.
Rule Five: All scenes should begin and end with continuing action. It is entirely unnatural to begin a scene with an actor doing nothing, preparing to act. Not only does it break the invisibility of the craft, but such an error unravels the pacing of the work causing far greater problems in the long run.
A scene should begin as an actor walks into the frame or picks up a telephone or washes dishes or cleans his sword or performs some action. A scene should end with the actor walking out of frame or slamming down the telephone or breaking dishes or plunging his sword into an orc or performing some other but not necessarily opposite action.
This serves to hasten the pace and ensure that the viewer is not bored by getting ahead of the action.
Rule Six: Cut for proper values rather than for proper matches. Some of these culprits are beyond even the tightest control: the length of a lit cigarette, the timing of flashing city lights, the movement of arms and legs during emotionally commanding scenes. While this is no concern at all when you leave a shot alone, this lack of continuity becomes extremely problematic when you must intercut frequently between different shots.
Dmytryk advises that continuity be damned. In a crisis such as this, cut to match the emotional truth of the scene so as not to cheat the audience of the experience. Rule Seven: Substance first — then form.
At all times, Dmytryk argues, an editor must strive to improve the emotional power of a film. Technically proficient editors created by educational institutions that fail to address the necessity of substance and value in the art of filmmaking are scarcely film editors at all.
In editing the whole point is to challenge every convention. Trust your instincts. This surprising result shows the mechanisms organizing our attention and perception of cinematographic phenomena 1.
In some contexts, filmic edition is related to the audio-visual narrative itself and editing rules; on other occasions, cuts in the narration give the narrator the possibility of saving time and space, moving faster in the story.
The research also deals with the role of media professionalization in this context. Griffith 2 , 3 and the Soviet school of cinema.
As the history of cinema moved along, so did rules and patterns in edition. According to Burch 7 , in the passage from Primitive Mode of Representation PMR to Institutional Mode of Representation IMR , audio-visual language was equipped with details of the scene and was released from the constrictions of theatrical narrative, continuity being effected through editing rules.
Such is the importance of the IMR edition system that continuity editing rules are known by the name of the whole: Hollywood style 3 , 8. Later, a more intensified edition appeared, known as post-classical style, but which could also be named MTV style because of its extended use in musical video clips. This form included an intensified continuity with faster edition, a distinctive use of extreme focal-length lenses, tight framings, and more movement in camerawork 10 , For instance, Dmytryk 12 made some interesting proposals about media edition: not to cut a shot without a reason, to cut in internal movement of actors, the need to start and end the scenes with actions, and—above all—content as a priority over aesthetics.
This has also been stressed by the editor Walter Murch 13 , who, after working in Hollywood for several years on films such as The Godfather or Apocalypse Now , suspected that eyeblink could have a comprehension function in films. He wondered whether there is a predictable and measurable blink that could let him know the best moment to cut a shot. Previously and in parallel, from fields such as psychology and frequently from research detecting failures in human communication, eyeblink has been understood as a reflection of attention and cognitive activity 14 , 15 , Despite eyeblinks, with their loss of visual input, visual experience is maintained 17 , and despite the cuts in a movie, narrative content continues being understood.
Nakano and colleagues 18 have shown synchronization in eyeblinks between and within subjects watching short video stories. This leads us to suspect that cuts respecting continuity editing rules would not affect narrative comprehension.
In , Schwan and Ildirar showed audio-visual fragments with different editing styles and perspectives to isolated people living in the Turkish mountains, who had never before seen an audio-visual work 21 , All participants in that experiment understood that what they were watching was a movie, and none of them confused it with reality.
Edition kept viewers from confusing screened presentation with reality. Separate shots were understood, but narrative structure was not integrated continuously through the work.
Some cinematographic discontinuity techniques construct an apparent continuum from reality to abstraction, but previous experience is required for its comprehension So, perceptive continuity in our real world seems to be fundamental for the understanding of ellipsis in edition.
Understanding film stories, despite eyeblinks We all assume that if we close our eyes, the world will still be there when we open them. Eyeblink hides visual flow for between and milliseconds 26 , 27 , 28 , Thus, visual information is hidden from viewers. In an audio-visual context, during a conversation eyeblinks are synchronized between listener s and talker 30 by narrative pauses of speech.
The impact of continuity editing on how people perceive events in a narrative film has been studied in the context of brain networks